El derecho de asociación en el constitucionalismo español y en su desarrollo
El asociacionismo promueve no sólo una serie de necesidades del hombre en tanto que ser social, sino también un legítimo pluralismo ideológico, cultural y religioso necesario en las sociedades humanas. Es más, en algunos momentos de la evolución histórica de los Estados modernos, estas agrupaciones han constituido potentes focos o centros de opinión frente a las pretensiones totalitarias de algunos gobiernos. Para lograr un entendimiento suficientemente comprehensivo de la realidad asociativa en su actual configuración legal, y centrándonos en el ámbito geográfico que comprende este estudio, es imprescindible tomar en consideración la evolución histórica de este derecho en España, así como su gestación, reconocimiento constitucional y su posterior desarrollo legislativo.
Associating with others not only promotes man’s needs as a social being but also the legitimate pluralism in ideology, culture and religion that is necessary for human society. What is more, at some moments in the historic evolution of modern States, such groupings have been potent foci or centres of opinion against the totalitarian leanings of some governments. In order to reach a sufficiently comprehensive understanding of the reality of association in its current legal configuration, and focusing on the geographic area covered by this study, it is essential to take into account the historic evolution of this right in Spain as well as its gestation, constitutional recognition and subsequent legislative development. In this analysis, alongside the relevant legislative texts, judicial decisions and doctrinal opinions, careful account has been taken of the lines of argument which have formed part of the constitutional and parliamentary debates. These provided material of singular importance to the character of the questions which expounding the problem provokes. For this, the official bulletins of the Parliament and the record of sessions have been followed very closely, along with the four excellent volumes of the work Spanish Constitution. Parliamentary Works edited by the Publications Service of the Parliament. The freedom of association in Spanish legislation has gone through a long historical process full of movement both forward and backwards in its regulation. From its first formulation, which was included in the Law of the 20th of June 1869 which proclaimed “the freedom that gives citizens the right to constitute public associations freely”, to its full recognition in the present constitution and its later development in the Organic Law Regulatory of the Freedom of Association (Ley Orgánica Reguladora del Derecho de Asociación), of March 22, 2002. It can be observed that in this pendulum movement in the history of freedom of association in Spain there has always been a latent tension between the recognition of this right as a real public individual freedom, linked from the moment of its first recognition to the recognition of other rights such as the freedom of expression and the freedom of assembly, and the intervention of the authorities in its birth and operation.
- Estudios Socio-Jurídicos