Accelerated nodulosis and systemic manifestations during methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis
Objectives: Methotrexate is successfully used in the treatment of arthritis but little is known about its effects on extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis. We focused this work on the incidence and clinical course of extra-articular manifestations during long-term treatment with methotrexate.Methods: The effect of methotrexate on extra-articular manifestations was investigated in 176 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had obtained, in a prospective study, a good clinical response to methotrexate (10 mg/week) taken for 33 months (range 4-68).Results: Before taking methotrexate, 44 patients (25.1%) had extra-articular manifestations: nodules (n = 40) and vasculitis (n = 9). With methotrexate, nodulosis and vasculitis were stable in 31 cases, improved in 3 and worsened in 10 (23%). Among the 132 patients without extra-articular manifestations before methotrexate therapy, 15 (11%) developed accelerated nodulosis preferentially located on the fingers, 7 had a vasculitis and 3 a pericarditis during methotrexate therapy. Extra-articular manifestations occurred between 1 and 24 months of initiating methotrexate therapy. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 88% of the patients with extra-articular manifestations. No relationship was noted between extra-articular manifestations and HLA type or antinuclear antibodies. In 3 out of 4 patients who developed accelerated nodulosis while taking methotrexate, the addition of hydroxychloroquine (400 mg/day) resulted in a significant reduction in the number and size of the nodules within 3 to 10 months after starting combined therapy.Conclusion: These data suggest that methotrexate is not effective in the treatment of extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis and that nodulosis may occur in about 11% of patients taking methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. The combination of hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate may have a beneficial effect on nodulosis that needs to be evaluated.
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