Efectividad de la vacuna Acelular Antipertusis en el embarazo y su protección al recién nacido : revisión sistemática
Se trata de un revisión sistemática de la literatura para evaluar la evidencia sobre la efectividad de la vacuna acelular antipertussis mediante la medición de los niveles de anticuerpos contra B. pertussis en el neonato e infante menor de dos meses, reflejando el paso transplacentario de anticuerpos maternos contra la tosferina.
Backround: With the worldwide resurgence of pertusiss in 2011, and letal infection in neonates and infants under two months of age, new vaccination strategies have been sought to reduce infant mortality and prevent fatal cases of Bordetella pertussis, including vaccination of pregnant women, based on the effective passage of maternal antibodies to the neonate. Methods: Systematic review of articles literature to evaluate the effectiveness of vertical transference of antibodies to neonates with the application of the acellular antipertussis vaccine to provide protection to the newborn and the infant under 2 months – old. Results: After a rigorous search, 18 articles were included for analysis and extraction of evidence. The effectiveness of the Tdap vaccine exceeded 90% in neonates, taking into account the levels of antibodies in the same. The reactogenicity, in generall was low. Discussion: The vaccine against pertussis in pregnant women appears to be a safe, effective and accepted strategy to protect the newborn during the first weeks of life. For this reason it has been recommended for all pregnant women dduring each pregnancy, a measure adopted in different countries of Europe and in America including our country. Conclusion: Available evidence suggests that the Tdap vaccine may be recommended in pregnant women between week 27-36 of gestation, a period in which there is a greater transplacental passage of antibodies against pertussis. Accelerating Tdap in pregnant women is an effective strategy with no side effects and low cost.. Key words: Effectiveness, passive immunization, anti-pertussis acellular vaccines, newborn.