Role of sleep duration and sleep-related problems in the metabolic syndrome among children and adolescents
ABSTRACT Background and objective: There is increasing recognition that sleep is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aims of this study were 2-fold: (i) to analyze the relationship between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome (MetS); and (ii) to examine the associations between sleep problems and MetS in Colombian children and adolescents. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis from the FUPRECOL study (2014-15). Participants included 2,789 (54.2% girls) youth from Bogota (Colombia). MetS was defined as the presence of ≥3 of the metabolic abnormalities (waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], triglycerides, fasting glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure) according to the criteria of de Ferranti and colleges. Self-reported sleep duration and sleep-related problems were assessed with the BEARS questionnaire. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that boys who meet recommended duration of sleep had a decreased risk of elevated blood glucose levels (Odds Ratio [OR]=0.71, 95%CI [0.40–0.94]; p=0.031). Excessive sleepiness during the day was related to low HDL-c levels in boys (OR=1.36, 95%CI [1.02–1.83]; p=0.036) and high triglyceride levels in girls (OR=1.28, 95%CI [1.01–1.63]; p=0.045). Girls with irregular sleep patterns had decreased HDL-c levels (OR=0.71, 95%CI [0.55–0.91]; p=0.009). Conclusions: Recommended sleep duration was associated with a decreased risk of elevated fasting glucose levels in boys, and sleep problems was related to lower HDL-c in girls and higher triglyceride levels in boys. These findings suggested the clinical importance of improving sleep hygiene to reduce metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents.