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Infección de Anopheles SPP por Plasmodium SPP y su importancia en la transmisión de Malaria en comunidades indígenas del Amazonas colombiano

dc.contributor.advisorPatarroyo, Manuel A.
dc.creatorAlvarado Cabrera, Luis Antonio
dc.creator.degreeMagíster en epidemiologíaspa
dc.creator.degreetypeFull timespa
dc.date.accessioned2019-10-29T11:55:08Z
dc.date.available2019-10-29T11:55:08Z
dc.date.created2019-10-21
dc.descriptionIntroducción: La disribución de las especies de Plasmodium han variado en las comunidades del Amazonas Colombiano, siendo P. vivax y P. malariae las de mayor frecuencia. Esto se debe a factores ambientales (como el cambio climático) y sociales (desplazamiento de la población) los cuales han impactado en la ecología y comportamiento de los vectores, ocasionando cambios en la dispersión parasitaria y la aparición de brotes en áreas donde se consideraba controlada. Objetivos: Identificar las especies de anophelinos a nivel taxonómico y molecular en dos comunidades del Amazonas Colombiano, Tipisca (Tp1/Tp2) y Doce de Octubre (DO) y determinar la frecuencia de infección de P. vivax, P. malariae y P. falciparum. Metodología: El estudio se realizó en junio de 2016 en dos comunidades indígenas ubicadas en un afluente del rio Amazonas, fueron capturados mosquitos de 6 pm a 11 pm en tres ecotopos (intradomicilio, peridomicilio y extradomicilio), por el método de cebo humano protegido. Fue realizada la identificación taxonómica morfológica y luego fue confirmada con Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR) de un fragmento del gen Mitocondrial Citocromo C Oxidasa Subunidad I (COI). La identificación de las tres especies de Plasmodium se realizó una PCR en 224 pooles analizados. Resultados: Se colectaron 1086 individuos; el 99,2% (n=1057) correspondió a Anopheles darlingi, el 0,4% An. mattogrossensis (n=4) y el 0,4% Culex spp (n=4). Los resultados mostraron que Tp1 tuvo la mayor abundancia de mosquitos (media=26,3), seguido por Tp2 (media=23,2) y DO (media=6,4), un analisis de varianzas revelo diferencias significativas entre el Tp1 y DO (p=0,001) y Tp2 y DO (p=0,001). A nivel de ecotopo la tasa de picadura más alta ocurrió en el peridomicilio (media=31,0), seguido del extradomicilio (media=26,6) y el intradomicilio (media=1,1), diferencias significativas se hallaron en el peridomicilio (p=0,004) y extradomicilio (P=0,004). De los 224 pooles analizados en el 40,6% se detectó Plasmodium; siendo P. vivax la más prevalente (21,9%), seguida de P. malariae (21,0%) y P. falciparum (10,3%). En cuanto a las infecciones mixtas, 24 (26,4%) de ellos presentaron infección por más de una especie parasitaria, siendo P. vivax y P. malariae (n=15; 16,5%) la de mayor aparición. Para An. mattogrossensis se encontró solo P. vivax en el 50% de los especímenes, siendo el primer registro de infección para esta especie en Colombia. Discusión: An. darlingi fue la especie dominante en la zona en una época de alta transmisión. Los resultados siguieren una actividad antropofilica y exofagica, lo que indica un cambio comportamental de su alimentación en las zona de estudio; su alta abundancia y susceptibilidad a la infección por Plasmodium indican su relación en la transmisión parasitaria como un vector primario. Se encontraron altas frecuencias de las especies parasitarias, demostrando la utilidad del uso de técnicas moleculares en la identificación del parásito. Los resultados de esta investigación buscan aportar información que a futuro contribuya al mejoramiento y la innovación de estrategias dirigidas al control de los vectores, como un paso esencial en el diseño de estrategias de prevención y control de la malaria.spa
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: The distribution of Plasmodium species has varied in the communities of the Colombian Amazon, with P. vivax and P. malariae being the most frequent. This is due to environmental factors (such as climate change) and social factors (such as population displacement) which have impacted on the ecology and behavior of these vectors, causing changes in parasitic dispersion and the appearance of outbreaks in areas where it was considered controlled. Objectives: To identify the species of anophelin at a taxonomic and molecular level in two communities of the Colombian Amazon, Tipisca (Tp1 / Tp2) and Doce de Octubre (DO) and to determine the frequency of infection of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. Methodology: The study was conducted in two indigenous communities located on a tributary of the Amazon River, where mosquitoes were captured from 6 pm to 11 pm in three ecotopes (intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary), by the method of human bait protected in June 2016. The morphological taxonomic identification was performed and then confirmed with a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of a fragment of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (IOC) gene. The identification of the three Plasmodium species was performed by a PCR in 224 pools analyzed. Results: 1086 individuals were collected; 99.2% (n = 1057) corresponded to Anopheles darlingi, 0.4% An. mattogrossensis (n = 4) and 0.4% Culex spp (n = 4). The results showed that Tp1 had the highest abundance of mosquitoes (mean = 26.3), followed by Tp2 (mean = 23.2) and OD (mean = 6.4), an analysis of variances revealed significant differences between Tp1 and OD (p = 0.001) and Tp2 and OD (p = 0.001). At the ecotope level, the highest bite rate occurred in the peridomiciliary (mean = 31.0), followed by the extradomiciliary (mean = 26.6) and the intradomiciliary (mean = 1.1), significant differences were found in the peridomiciliary (p = 0.004) and extradomiciliary (P = 0.004). Of the 224 pools analyzed in 40.6%, Plasmodium was detected; P. vivax being the most prevalent (21.9%), followed by P. malariae (21.0%) and P. falciparum (10.3%). As for mixed infections, 24 (26.4%) of them presented infection by more than one parasitic species, with P. vivax and P. malariae (n = 15; 16.5%) being the most common. For An. mattogrossensis, only P. vivax was found in 50% of the specimens, being the first infection record for this species in Colombia. Discussion: An. darlingi was the dominant species in the area at the time of high transmission. The results follow an anthropophilic and exophageal activity, which indicates a behavioral change of their diet in the study area; Its high abundance and susceptibility to Plasmodium infection indicate its relationship in parasitic transmission as a primary vector. High frequencies of the parasitic species were found, demonstrating the usefulness of the use of molecular techniques in the identification of the parasite. The results of this research seek to provide information that supports the improvement and innovation of strategies aimed at vector control, as an essential step in the design of malaria prevention and control strategies.spa
dc.description.sponsorshipFundacion Instituto de Inmunología de Colombiaspa
dc.description.sponsorshipGobernación del Amazonasspa
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.48713/10336_20500
dc.identifier.urihttps://repository.urosario.edu.co/handle/10336/20500
dc.language.isospaspa
dc.publisherUniversidad del Rosariospa
dc.publisher.departmentMaestría en Actividad Física y Saludspa
dc.publisher.otherUniversidad CESspa
dc.publisher.programMaestría en Epidemiologíaspa
dc.rightsAtribución-SinDerivadas 2.5 Colombiaspa
dc.rightsAtribución-SinDerivadas 2.5 Colombiaspa
dc.rightsAtribución-SinDerivadas 2.5 Colombiaspa
dc.rights.accesRightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.rights.accesoAbierto (Texto Completo)spa
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dc.source.instnameinstname:Universidad del Rosariospa
dc.source.reponamereponame:Repositorio Institucional EdocURspa
dc.subjectMalariaspa
dc.subjectPlasmodiumspa
dc.subjectAnophelesspa
dc.subjectInfecciónspa
dc.subject.ddcCiencias médicas, Medicinaspa
dc.subject.keywordMalariaspa
dc.subject.keywordPlasmodiumspa
dc.subject.keywordAnophelesspa
dc.subject.keywordInfectionspa
dc.subject.lembMedicinaspa
dc.subject.lembEpidemiologíaspa
dc.subject.lembMalariaspa
dc.titleInfección de Anopheles SPP por Plasmodium SPP y su importancia en la transmisión de Malaria en comunidades indígenas del Amazonas colombianospa
dc.title.TranslatedTitleBehavior and abundance of Anopheles darlingi in communities living in the Colombian Amazon riversideeng
dc.typemasterThesiseng
dc.type.documentTrabajo de gradospa
dc.type.hasVersioninfo:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion
dc.type.spaTesis de maestríaspa
local.department.reportEscuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Saludspa
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