Cardiovascular disease in the antiphospholipid syndrome
"The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) varies from one series to another depending on the definition of CVD and tools used for its detection. Atherosclerosis, the usual cause of CVD, starts when the endothelium becomes damaged and is considered to be an autoimmune-inflammatory disease. The excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with APS are not fully explained by traditional risk factors. Therefore, several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature CVD and accelerated vascular damage in those patients. Herein, the significance and outcomes of CVD in APS are reviewed. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav."
High density lipoprotein ; Lupus anticoagulant ; Beta2 glycoprotein 1 ; Anticoagulant therapy ; Antiphospholipid syndrome ; Blood vessel injury ; Cardiovascular disease ; Cardiovascular risk ; Conference paper ; Congestive cardiomyopathy ; Early diagnosis ; Follow up ; Heart infarction ; Human ; Hypertriglyceridemia ; Lifestyle modification ; Lung embolism ; Prevalence ; Pulmonary hypertension ; Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura ; Antiphospholipid syndrome ; Cardiovascular diseases ; Complication ; Physiology ; Risk factor ; Antiphospholipid syndrome ; Beta 2-glycoprotein i ; Cardiovascular diseases ; Humans ; Risk factors ; Antiphospholipid syndrome ; Cardiovascular disease ; Novel risk factors ; Traditional risk factors ;
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