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Age at menopause in Latin America

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Blümel J.E.
Chedraui P.
Calle A.
Bocanera R.
Depiano E.
Figueroa-Casas P.
Gonzalez C.
Martino M.
Royer M.
Zuñiga C.




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OBJECTIVE: To assess the age at menopause (AM) in Latin America urban areas. DESIGN: A total of 17,150 healthy women, aged 40 to 59 years, accompanying patients to healthcare centers in 47 cities of 15 Latin American countries, were surveyed regarding their age, educational level, healthcare coverage, history of gynecological surgery, smoking habit, presence of menses, and the use of contraception or hormone therapy at menopause. The AM was calculated using logit analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of the entire sample was 49.4 ± 5.5 years. Mean educational level was 9.9 ± 4.5 years, and the use of hormone therapy and oral contraception was 22.1% and 7.9%, respectively. The median AM of women in all centers was 48.6 years, ranging from 43.8 years in Asuncion (Paraguay) to 53 years in Cartagena de Indias (Colombia). Logistic regression analysis determined that women aged 49 living in cities at 2,000 meters or more above sea level (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-2.9, P less than 0.001) and those with lower educational level (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.8, P less than 0.001) or living in countries with low gross national product (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.5-2.9, P less than 0.001) were more prone to an earlier onset of menopause. CONCLUSIONS: The AM varies widely in Latin America. Lower income and related poverty conditions influence the onset of menopause. © 2006 by The North American Menopause Society.
Palabras clave
Oral contraceptive agent , Adult , combined , Calculation , Controlled study , Education , Female , Gynecologic surgery , Health care , Health center , Hormonal therapy , Human , Logistic regression analysis , Menopause , Menstruation , Normal human , Onset age , Oral contraception , Smoking , South and central america , Urban area , Adult , Age factors , Altitude , Contraceptives , Cross-sectional studies , Estrogen replacement therapy , Female , Humans , Latin america , Logistic models , Menopause , Middle aged , Questionnaires , Risk factors , Socioeconomic factors , South america , Age at menopause , Climacteric , Latin america , Menopause onset , Risk factors