Genetic Variants Contributing to Early Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Etiology Identified by Sequencing Approaches
"Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) affects up to 5% of couples. It is believed that genetic factors contribute to the disease’s etiology and pathophysiology. Hundreds of genes represent coherent RPL candidates due to mammalian implantation’s inherent complexity. Sanger sequencing (direct sequencing) of candidate genes has identified potential RPL causative genes (and variants), including those regulating embryo implantation and pregnancy maintenance. Although this approach is a reliable technique, the simultaneous analysis of large genomic regions is challenging. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has thus emerged as a useful alternative for determining genetic variants and transcriptomic disturbances contributing to monogenic and polygenic diseases pathogenesis. However, interpreting results remains challenging as NGS experiments provide an enormous amount of complex data. The molecular aspects of specific diseases must be fully understood for accurate interpretation of NGS data. This review was thus aimed at describing (for the first time) the most relevant studies involving Sanger and NGS sequencing, leading to the description of variants related to RPL pathogenesis. Successful RPL-related NGS initiatives (including RNAseq-based studies) and future challenges are discussed. We consider that the information given here should be useful for clinicians, scientists, and students to enable a better understanding of RPL etiology. It may also provide a basis for the development of diagnostic/prognostic approaches contributing toward translational medicine. © The Author(s) 2019."
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