We are living under a global environmental and social crisis caused by the exponential growth of human activities on the Earth System. The increasing pressure on ecosystems, soil and water, climate and the atmosphere has the potential to trigger sudden or irreparable environmental changes that can harm human and other living and non-living forms on Earth (Rockström et al. 2009). As we enter the Anthropocene (Rockström et al, 2009) almost all environmental problems become global commons. As a consequence, there is a growing need for cooperative action among societies, in order to avoid classic problems such as free-riding and the tragedy of the commons (Harding, 1968). Moreover, the poor populations in emerging and developing countries are likely to be the most affected.
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