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IgM predominance in autoimmune disease: Genetics and gender

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Duarte-Rey, Carolina
Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.
Leung, Patrick S.C.
Anaya, Juan-Manuel
Gershwin, M. Eric



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The role of specific immunoglobulin isotypes in human autoimmune disease has long attracted attention. Indeed, the presence of a polyclonal gammopathy is well known in a variety of systemic autoimmune diseases and is likely the result of chronic inflammation. However, in specific clinical situations, patients manifest isolated and elevated IgM levels, but normal IgG and IgA. The pathophysiology of this elevation and the clinical significance have been elusive. However, the relationships between specific genes and hyper-IgM are now very well defined, as it has been documented in primary hyper IgM syndromes. In this review we present data on clinical diseases with characteristic IgM abnormalities, including primary and secondary hyper IgM syndromes, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cryoglobulinemia, primary biliary cirrhosis and multiple sclerosis and place the data in the perspective of the normal maturation of the immune response, including somatic mutation and genetic rearrangement. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
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Activation induced cytidine deaminase , xxx , Alpha interferon , Antinuclear antibody , Antivirus agent , Cd40 antigen , Cd40 ligand , Complement component c3b , I kappa b kinase gamma , Immunoglobulin , Immunoglobulin m , Rheumatoid factor , Rituximab , Smooth muscle antibody , Thyroid hormone , Antiviral therapy , Arthritis , Autoimmune disease , Autoimmune hemolytic anemia , Autoimmune hepatitis , Autoimmune thrombocytopenia , Autoimmune thyroiditis , B lymphocyte , Cd4+ t lymphocyte , Cell selection , Chronic diarrhea , Coombs positive hemolytic anemia , Cryoglobulinemia , Discoid lupus erythematosus , Enteritis , Gender , Gene expression , Gene mutation , Hashimoto disease , Hepatitis c , Hormone substitution , Human , Hyper igm syndrome , Hypothyroidism , Immunoglobulin m deficiency , Infection , Interstitial pneumonia , Karyotype 47 , Liver injury , Lymphoproliferative disease , Multiple sclerosis , Nephritis , Nonhuman , Plasmapheresis , Primary biliary cirrhosis , Review , Rheumatoid arthritis , Stem cell transplantation , Systemic lupus erythematosus , X chromosome , Autoimmune diseases , B-lymphocytes , Female , Humans , Hyper-igm immunodeficiency syndrome , Immunoglobulin m , Male , Sex factors , Autoimmune disease , Autoimmune hemolytic anemia , Cryoglobulinemia , Immunoglobulin m , Multiple sclerosis , Primary biliary cirrhosis
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