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Parasite-related genetic and epigenetic aspects and host factors influencing plasmodium falciparum invasion of erythrocytes

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Ararat-Sarria, Monica
Patarroyo, Manuel A.
Curtidor, Hernando



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Frontiers Media S.A.

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Malaria, a disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, is widespread throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide; it mostly affects children and pregnant woman. Eradication has stalled despite effective prevention measures and medication being available for this disease; this has mainly been due to the parasite's resistance to medical treatment and the mosquito vector's resistance to insecticides. Tackling such resistance involves using renewed approaches and techniques for accruing a deep understanding of the parasite's biology, and developing new drugs and vaccines. Studying the parasite's invasion of erythrocytes should shed light on its ability to switch between invasion phenotypes related to the expression of gene sets encoding proteins acting as ligands during target cell invasion, thereby conferring mechanisms for evading a particular host's immune response and adapting to changes in target cell surface receptors. This review considers some factors influencing the expression of such phenotypes, such as Plasmodium's genetic, transcriptional and epigenetic characteristics, and explores some host-related aspects which could affect parasite phenotypes, aiming at integrating knowledge regarding this topic and the possible relationship between the parasite's biology and host factors playing a role in erythrocyte invasion. © 2019 Ararat-Sarria, Patarroyo and Curtidor. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Palabras clave
Transcription factor , Cell invasion , Chromatin immunoprecipitation , Crispr-cas9 system , Epigenetics , Erythrocyte , Gene expression , Gene mutation , Gene structure , Immune response , Malaria , Mutational analysis , Nonhuman , Open reading frame , Phenotype , Plasmodium falciparum , Protozoal genetics , Review , Sequence analysis , Endocytosis , Erythrocyte , Gene expression regulation , Genetics , Host pathogen interaction , Human , Immunology , Parasitology , Physiology , Plasmodium falciparum , Endocytosis , Erythrocytes , Gene expression regulation , Host-pathogen interactions , Humans , Plasmodium falciparum , Invasion factors , Malaria , Phenotype change , Plasmodium falciparum , Regulatory mechanism
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